To allow comparisons with before studies, we together with used nonspatial bring-recapture approaches to guess mature jaguar occurrence (get a hold of Appendix B for steps and you may efficiency).
Estimating cub thickness and you can people design
I estimated densities alone for males, reproductive girls, and you may nonreproductive female. I made an effort to complement activities to findings off cubs, however their simple simply take histories don’t bring enough research for a max probability data. So you can estimate cub density, i multiplied the latest reproductive girls thickness from our finest model by indicate quantity of cubs for each and every reproductive females. These estimates anticipate calculation away from overall jaguar occurrence and you will population structure for men, nonreproductive lady, reproductive lady, and you can cubs.
The total testing energy is actually a dozen,302 digital camera pitfall-evening. I gotten 1465 catches, along with 1369 having identifiable anybody (Table step one). Altogether, we understood 42 jaguars, in addition to fourteen males, fourteen adult female, and you will 14 cubs. Of one’s fourteen shoot mature women, eight have been positively reproducing and you can photographed with cubs (Images D1, D2). Although we registered equivalent numbers of people, girls, and you may cubs regarding investigation city, the capture regularity of every classification differed: 58% from understood images was those of guys (798 catches), 33% from recognizable captures were those of female (452), and only nine% were the ones from cubs (119). On average, males was in fact seized 56 times for each and every, female thirty two times, and you may cubs only nine minutes. Reproductive women got some highest total number away from grabs than nonreproductive girls (257 rather than 195, respectively) and higher average amount of catches per individual (38 in the place of twenty eight). Reproductive girls was indeed more frequently captured alone (109 moments) than with cubs (69 grabs) throughout known girls and boys reliance. However, cubs have been recorded with greater regularity employing parents (83 private catches) than just by yourself (36 grabs).
Density estimates out of mature jaguars
Of the 32 models analyzed with the secr package with sex/reproductive status and sessions as covariates, those which did not allow density to vary across sessions obtained the lowest AICc values. In contrast, models assuming density variation across sessions received less support (Tables 2, C1). The top secr model for adult jaguars included an effect of sex/female reproductive status on D, ? 0, and ? and between session variation in ? 0. All three parameters differed significantly between sex/reproductive status groups (Table 3). Baseline detection probability was lowest for reproductive females (0.04 on average), whereas nonreproductive females had the greatest baseline detectability (0.13 on average) and males intermediate (0.08 on average) to the two female reproductive classes. Males had the largest values of estimated movement distribution (? = 2.97 ± 0.09 km), while reproductive and nonreproductive females obtained smaller ? values (2.04 ± 0.11 and 2.32 ± 0.19 km, respectively). Estimated densities were higher for reproductive females and males (1.97 ± 0.33 and 1.62 ± 0.22 individuals/ 100 km 2 , respectively) than for nonreproductive females (0.85 ± 0.19 individuals/100 km 2 ). In total, the best model estimated 4.44 ± 1.16 adult jaguars/100 km 2 (Table 3).
Cub density and you will jaguar inhabitants design
Away from observations of your own 7 reproductive people with girls and boys within the study period, i estimated 1.64 cubs for each and every reproductive ladies on average. While doing so, one to cub is submitted alone on one occasion along with a not known mother. I omitted which lone observation off then research. Based on reproductive female occurrence in the most readily useful design, we estimated 3.23 cubs/100 kilometer dos on studies town. Ergo, we estimated a complete thickness of seven.67 jaguars/one hundred kilometres dos . Jaguar people framework was 21% males, 11% nonreproductive people, 26% reproductive lady, and 42% cubs (Table 3).